Tourette Syndrome – Dysfunctional Neural-Immune cross-talk

The role of immune mechanisms in Tourette syndrome.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24845720

Abstract

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset tic disorder associated with abnormal development of brain networks involved in the sensory and motor processing.

An involvement of immune mechanisms in its pathophysiology has been proposed. Animal models based on active immunization with bacterial or viral mimics, direct injection of cytokines or patients’ serum anti-neuronal antibodies, and transgenic approaches replicated stereotyped behaviors observed in human TS.

A crucial role of microglia in the neural-immune crosstalk within TS and related disorders has been proposed by animal models and confirmed by recent post mortem studies.

With analogy to autism, genetic and early life environmental factors could foster the involvement of immune mechanisms to the abnormal developmental trajectories postulated in TS, as well as lead to systemic immune dysregulation in this condition.

Clinical studies demonstrate an association between TS and immune responses to pathogens like group A Streptococcus (GAS), although their role as risk-modifiers is still undefined.

Overactivity of immune responses at a systemic level is suggested by clinical studies exploring cytokine and immunoglobulin levels, immune cell subpopulations, and gene expression profiling of peripheral lymphocytes.

The involvement of autoantibodies, on the other hand, remains uncertain and warrants more work using live cell-based approaches.

Overall, a body of evidence supports the hypothesis that disease mechanisms in TS, like other neurodevelopmental illnesses (e.g. autism), may involve dysfunctional neural-immune cross-talk, ultimately leading to altered maturation of brain pathways controlling different behavioral domains and, possibly, differences in organising immune and stress responses.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Advertisements
This entry was posted in Autism, co-morbid, Environment, Gut, Immune System, Inflammation, Neurology, Physiology, Treatment, Virus. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s