The Influenza Iceberg – Implications for Maternal Immune Activation in Autism

Symptoms Just Tip of Flu Iceberg

Published: Mar 17, 2014 | Updated: Mar 18, 2014

Three-quarters of seasonal and pandemic influenza infections never caused symptoms, a population-based comparison of serologic and weekly symptom monitoring showed.

Only 23% of unvaccinated people with serologic evidence of infection reported respiratory or flu-like symptoms, Andrew Hayward, MD, of University College London, and colleagues found in the Flu Watch study.

Just 17% of the symptomatic cases confirmed by nasal swab analysis saw a doctor for their flu, the researchers reported online in Lancet Respiratory Medicine.

“Reported cases of influenza represent the tip of a large clinical and subclinical iceberg that is mainly invisible to routine surveillance systems,” they wrote.



Further Readings of Interest

Paul Patterson – Influenza / Maternal Immune Acivation Model of Autism


Gestational flu exposure induces changes in neurochemicals, affiliative hormones and brainstem inflammation, in addition to autism-like behaviors in mice.

Autism after infection, febrile episodes, and antibiotic use during pregnancy: an exploratory study.

Effects of maternal immune activation on gene expression patterns in the fetal brain.

Is maternal influenza or fever during pregnancy associated with autism or developmental delays? Results from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) study.

Epidemiologic studies of exposure to prenatal infection and risk of schizophrenia and autism.

This entry was posted in Autism, co-morbid, Depression, Gut, Immune System, Inflammation, Neurology, Physiology, Treatment. Bookmark the permalink.

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