1. Microbiota Modulate Behavioral and Physiological Abnormalities Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Full Paper at Link
- The MIA model recapitulates GI comorbidities linked to a subset of ASD individuals
- Targeting the microbiota treats specific GI and behavioral symptoms
- Gut microbes regulate metabolites that alter behavior in animals
- Microbiota may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders
1. Comorbidity Clusters in Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Electronic Health Record Time-Series Analysis.
Four subgroups were identified.
The first was characterized by seizures (n = 120, subgroup prevalence 77.5%).
The second (n = 197) was characterized by multisystem disorders including gastrointestinal disorders (prevalence 24.3%) and auditory disorders and infections (prevalence 87.8%),
and the third was characterized by psychiatric disorders (n = 212, prevalence 33.0%).
The last group (n = 4316) could not be further resolved.
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was uncorrelated with seizure activity (P = .17), but a significant correlation existed between gastrointestinal disorders and seizures (P < .001).
The correlation results were replicated by using a second sample of 496 individuals from a different geographic region.
3. UC Davis MIND Institute researchers find exposure to prenatal maternal antibodies affects behavior, development in offspring
Researchers identify biomarker for autism in a subset of children: Maternal Antibody-Related autism.
SACRAMENTO, Calif.) — Researchers with the UC Davis MIND Institute have found that prenatal exposure to specific combinations of antibodies found only in mothers of children with autism leads to changes in the brain that adversely affect behavior and development.
The researchers said that the highly specific immunoglobulin-G (IgG) autoantibodies cross the placenta during pregnancy to impact fetal brain development, resulting in a form of autism that the researchers now are calling maternal antibody-related (MAR) autism. The researchers said that MAR autism cases could represent as much as 23 percent of all autism cases.
4. Maternal antibodies from mothers of children with autism alter brain growth and social behavior development in the rhesus monkey
Antibodies directed against fetal brain proteins of 37 and 73 kDa molecular weight are found in approximately 12% of mothers who have children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but not in mothers of typically developing children.
5. Look into my eyes
Babies who go on to develop autism begin to make less eye contact after just 2 months of life. It’s the earliest indicator of autism so far
- Research article: Jones and Klin
6. Variation in the Incidence and Prevalence of Autism from Multiple Health Systems: Findings from the Mental Health Research Network Autism Registry Study.
A preliminary examination of data from one site (N = 1,271,823) found 10,114 individuals <18 years ever diagnosed with an ASD.
Of those 10,114 ASD cases, 8,085 met the validation criteria and were included in final analyses.
Prevalence of all ASDs in children ≤8 years old was 1.1/1000 in 2001 (1 in 909 children) and increased steadily to 7.1/1000 in 2010 (1 in 141 children).
Prevalence specifically for autistic disorder (AD), a more severe subtype, in children ≤8 years old was 0.3/1000 in 2001 and increased to 1.9/1000 in 2010.
Similar secular increases were noted for incidence.
Prevalence and incidence varied greatly among demographic groups.
Prevalence of all ASDs in 2010 was
8.4/1000 among Whites,
7.1/1000 among Blacks, and
10.6/1000 among Asians.
Prevalence of ASDs among females was lower than among males in all years (2010 males: 11.2/1000, 2010 females: 2.8/1000).
7. UC Davis researchers find how viral infection disrupts neural development in offspring, increasing risk of autism
Activating a mother’s immune system during her pregnancy disrupts the development of neural cells in the brain of her offspring and damages the cells’ ability to transmit signals and communicate with one another, researchers with the UC Davis Center for Neuroscience and Department of Neurology have found. They said the finding suggests how maternal viral infection might increase the risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia.
8. Preterm Birth and Mortality and Morbidity : A Population-Based Quasi-experimental Study
In the population, there was a dose-response relationship between early gestation and the outcome measures. For example, extreme preterm birth (23-27 weeks of gestation) was associated with infant mortality (odds ratio, 288.1; 95% CI, 271.7-305.5), autism (hazard ratio [HR], 3.2; 95% CI, 2.6-4.0), low educational attainment (HR, 1.7; 1.5-2.0), and social welfare benefits (HR, 1.3; 1.2-1.5) compared with offspring born at term
9. Redefining Autism Spectrum Disorder Using DSM-5: The Implications of the Proposed DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Of the 210 participants in the present study who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for a PDD [i.e., autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)], only 57.1 % met DSM-5 criteria (specificity = 1.0) for autism spectrum disorder when criteria were applied concurrently during diagnostic assessment. High-functioning individuals (i.e., Asperger’s disorder and PDD-NOS) were less likely to meet DSM-5 criteria than those with autistic disorder. A failure to satisfy all three criteria in the social-communication domain was the most common reason for exclusion (39 %). The implications of these results are discussed.
10. Five-Fold Increase in National Prevalence Rates of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medications for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and other Psychiatric Disorders: A Danish Register-Based Study.
Prescriptions were also stratified by duration (<6 months. vs.≥6 months).
16% of 9698 children and adolescents with ASD (n=1577),
61% of 11,553 children and adolescents with ADHD (n=7021) and
3% of 48,468 children and adolescents with other psychiatric disorders (n=1537) were treated with one or more ADHD medications.
There was a significant increase in prescription rates of these medications for all three groups.
From 2003 to 2010, youth 6-13 years of age with ASD, ADHD, and other psychiatric disorders had
6.3-fold (6.0-6.4), and
5.5-fold (5.0-5.9) increases, respectively, in prescription rates of ADHD medications.
11. DNA Changes During Pregnancy Persist Into Childhood
12. Children with behavioral problems more at risk of inflammation
13. The Promise of Poop
14. Immune System, Skin Microbiome “Complement” One Another, Finds Penn Medicine Study
15. A Home for the Microbiome
16. Autism four times likelier when mother’s thyroid is weakened
17. Atypical Developmental Patterns of Brain Chemistry in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
18. Fresh fuel reignites Asperger’s debate
19. Clinical characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder and co-occurring epilepsy.
20. Excessive cerebrospinal fluid and enlarged brain size in infancy are potential biomarkers for autism
21. Exposure to high pollution levels during pregnancy may increase risk of having child with autism
22. Elevated Gluten Antibodies Found in Children with Autism
23. Adult rats treated with risperidone during development are hyperactive.
24. Ketogenic Diet Improves Core Symptoms of Autism in BTBR Mice.
25. Prevalence of Allergic Disease in Foreign-Born American Children
28. Is a Subtype of Autism an Allergy of the Brain?
29. Stress in puberty unmasks latent neuropathological consequences of prenatal immune activation in mice.
30. Flu in Pregnancy May Quadruple Child’s Risk for Bipolar Disorder
31. Btbrt+Tf/J Mice Exhibit an Inflammatory Macrophage Cytokine Profile with Associations to Repetitive Grooming Behavior
32. Childhood disability rate jumps 16 percent over past decade
33. Altered Cytokine and BDNF Levels in Autism Spectrum Disorder.
34. Maternal Serum Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism: A Pilot Study.
35. Drug Could Improve Working Memory of People with Autism, MU Study Finds
36. Autism risk spotted at birth in abnormal placentas
37. Altered Cytokine and BDNF Levels in Autism Spectrum Disorder.
38. Maternal Serum Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism: A Pilot Study.
39. Drug Could Improve Working Memory of People with Autism, MU Study Finds
40. Focal brain inflammation and autism