Interaction between Retinoid Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) and Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1) in Asthma
Retinoid acid receptor-related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for asthma in a genome-wide association study.
To investigate the impact of RORA on asthma susceptibility, we performed a genetic association study between RORA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vicinity of the asthma-associated SNP (rs11071559) and asthma-related traits. Because the regulatory region of a previously implicated asthma susceptibility gene, Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1), has predicted elements for RORA binding, we hypothesized that RORA may interact biologically and genetically with NPSR1.
37 RORA SNPs and eight NPSR1 SNPs were genotyped in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE (2033 children) and the European cross-sectional PARSIFAL study (1120 children).
Seven RORA SNPs confined into a 49 kb region were significantly associated with physician-diagnosed childhood asthma.
The most significant association with rs7164773 (T/C) was driven by the CC genotype in asthma cases (OR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.36–2.93, p = 0.0003 in BAMSE; and 1.61, 1.18–2.19, p = 0.002 in the combined BAMSE-PARSIFAL datasets, respectively), and strikingly, the risk effect was dependent on the Gln344Arg mutation in NPSR1.
In cell models, stimulation of NPSR1 activated a pathway including RORA and other circadian clock genes.
Over-expression of RORA decreased NPSR1 promoter activity further suggesting a regulatory loop between these genes. In addition, Rora mRNA expression was lower in the lung tissue of Npsr1 deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates during the early hours of the light period.
We conclude that RORA SNPs are associated with childhood asthma and show epistasis with NPSR1, and the interaction between RORA and NPSR1 may be of biological relevance. Combinations of common susceptibility alleles and less common functional polymorphisms may modify the joint risk effects on asthma susceptibility.
From the full paper
Neuropeptide s receptor 1 gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease.
BACKGROUND & AIMS:
The neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR1) gene has been associated recently with asthma and maps in a region of chromosome 7 previously linked also to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). NPSR1 is expressed on the epithelia of several organs including the intestine, and appears to be up-regulated in inflammation.
We tested NPSR1 gene polymorphism for association with IBD and verified whether the expression of its 2 major isoforms (NPSR1-A and NPSR1-B) is altered in the intestine of IBD patients.
Eight NPSR1 polymorphisms were genotyped in 2490 subjects from 3 cohorts of IBD patients and controls from Italy, Sweden, and Finland. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify NPSR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in intestinal biopsy specimens from IBD patients and controls.
Global analysis of the whole dataset identified strong association of a NPSR1 haplotype block with IBD (P = .0018) and its 2 major forms: Crohn’s disease (CD) (P = .026) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (P = .003). Genetic effects caused by individual haplotypes were identified mainly for the predisposing haplotype H2 in CD (P = .0005) and the protective haplotype H8 in UC (P = .003). NPSR1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in IBD patients compared with controls, and the risk haplotype H2 correlated with higher expression of both NPSR1-A (P = .024) and NPSR1-B (P = .047) mRNAs.
NPSR1 polymorphism is associated with IBD susceptibility. Specific NPSR1 alleles might act as genetic risk factors for chronic inflammatory diseases of the epithelial barrier organs.