Beneficial Microbes and Disease

Medical Microbiologist Sarkis Mazmanian: 2012 MacArthur Fellow

Thanks to the heads up from Paul Patterson who works in collaboration with Sarkis.

Fascinating short you tune video here …

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=B4tJ3jMAbgg

Some work that Sarkis Mazmanian has been involved in …

Outer Membrane Vesicles of a Human Commensal Mediate Immune Regulation and Disease Protection.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22999859

Commensal bacteria impact host health and immunity through various mechanisms, including the production of immunomodulatory molecules. Bacteroides fragilis produces a capsular polysaccharide (PSA), which induces regulatory T cells and mucosal tolerance. However, unlike pathogens, which employ secretion systems, the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria deliver molecules to the host remain unknown. We reveal that Bacteroides fragilis releases PSA in outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that induce immunomodulatory effects and prevent experimental colitis.

Modeling an autism risk factor in mice leads to permanent immune dysregulation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22802640

Increasing evidence highlights a role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as immune dysregulation is observed in the brain, periphery, and gastrointestinal tract of ASD individuals. Furthermore, maternal infection (maternal immune activation, MIA) is a risk factor for ASD. Modeling this risk factor in mice yields offspring with the cardinal behavioral and neuropathological symptoms of human ASD. In this study, we find that offspring of immune-activated mothers display altered immune profiles and function, characterized by a systemic deficit in CD4(+) TCRβ(+) Foxp3(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells, increased IL-6 and IL-17 production by CD4(+) T cells, and elevated levels of peripheral Gr-1(+) cells.

Intestinal microbes affect phenotypes and functions of invariant natural killer T cells in mice.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22522092

CONCLUSIONS:

Intestinal microbes can affect iNKT cell phenotypes and functions in mice.

 

This entry was posted in Allergy, Asthma, Autism, co-morbid, Depression, diabetes, Environment, Epidemiology, Epigenetics, General, Genetics, Gut, Immune System, Inflammation, Mice, Muscular Dystrophy, Neurology, Physiology, Schizophrenia, Treatment and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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