Allergy , Mast Cells and GI issues

Further readings of interest are presented below showing the varying links of Allergy , autism and mast cells.

Mast cell-orchestrated immunity to pathogens

http://www.nature.com/nri/journal/v10/n6/abs/nri2782.html

“Although mast cells were discovered more than a century ago, their functions beyond their role in allergic responses remained elusive until recently. However, there is a growing appreciation that an important physiological function of these cells is the recognition of pathogens and modulation of appropriate immune responses. Because of their ability to instantly release several pro-inflammatory mediators from intracellular stores and their location at the host–environment interface, mast cells have been shown to be crucial for optimal immune responses during infection. Mast cells seem to exert these effects by altering the inflammatory environment after detection of a pathogen and by mobilizing various immune cells to the site of infection and to draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, the character and timing of these responses can vary depending on the type of pathogen stimulus, location of pathogen recognition and sensitization state of the responding mast cells. Recent studies using mast cell activators as effective vaccine adjuvants show the potential of harnessing these cells to confer protective immunity against microbial pathogens.”

Chronic stress induces mast cell–dependent bacterial adherence and initiates mucosal inflammation in rat intestine

http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085%2802%2900215-9/abstract?referrer=http://scholar.google.com.au/scholar?q=mast%20cell%20gut

Conclusions: These findings suggest that chronic psychological stress can be an initiating factor in intestinal inflammation by impairing mucosal defenses against luminal bacteria and highlight the importance of mast cells in this process.

Histopathological alterations in irritable bowel syndrome

http://www.nature.com/modpathol/journal/v19/n12/abs/3800704a.html

“Irritable bowel syndrome is a common disorder defined by a symptom complex including abdominal pain and altered bowel habit. The etiopathogenesis appears to be multifactorial and to involve altered gastrointestinal motor function, enhanced perception of visceral stimuli and psychosocial factors. More recently a role for mucosal immune activation has been suggested. Routine histologic examination reveals no mucosal abnormality in the majority of cases but quantitative histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses reveal subtle morphologic changes involving lymphocytes, mast cells, enterochromaffin cells and enteric nerves. The recent appreciation of these changes has led to new hypotheses linking central and enteric nervous systems to immune processes. This review highlights the spectrum of morphologic changes that occur in irritable bowel syndrome, examines their relationship to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome and considers their relevance to daily pathology practice.”

Mast cells: do they really have a role in disturbed bowel habits of IBS patients? (letter)

Aykut Ferhat Çelik, Cuyan Demirkesen, Ömer Nuri Pamuk, Gülsüm Emel Pamuk and Hülya Uzunismail

Abstract

“TO THE EDITOR: Abnormally increased visceral and/or central perception, perhaps modulated by psychological factors might have a role in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, it is still not certain whether altered visceral perception and lower pain thresholds occur at the level of primary visceral afferents or centrally in the brain. As it is known, mucosal mast cells (MMC) release potent mediators on degranulation that might affect enteric nerve and smooth muscle function”

Role of Mast Cells in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Neoplasia in IL-10-Deficient Mice

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0012220

“Mast cells thus appear to have a primarily protective role within the colonic microenvironment by enhancing the efficacy of the mucosal barrier. In addition, although mast cells were previously implicated in progression of sporadic colon cancers, mast cells did not affect the incidence or severity of colonic neoplasia in this inflammation-associated model.”

Mast cell-deficient mice and intestinal biology

http://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/278/3/G343.full

Mast cells regulate homeostatic intestinal epithelial migration and barrier function by a chymase/Mcpt4-dependent mechanism

http://www.pnas.org/content/106/52/22381.full

Mast Cell Tryptase Controls Paracellular Permeability of the Intestine

ROLE OF PROTEASE-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR 2 AND β-ARRESTINS

Tight junctions between intestinal epithelial cells prevent ingress of luminal macromolecules and bacteria and protect against inflammation and infection. During stress and inflammation, mast cells mediate increased mucosal permeability by unknown mechanisms.

This entry was posted in Physiology, Schizophrenia, Treatment, Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

1 Response to Allergy , Mast Cells and GI issues

  1. Pingback: UCP2 – Mast Cells and Autism | asdresearchinitiative

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s